Our papers

Steganography History, Fundamentals & Trends

  1. Steffen Wendzel, Sebastian Zander, Bernhard Fechner, Christian Herdin, Pattern-based Survey and Categorization of Network Covert Channel Techniques, Computing Surveys (CSUR), Vol. 47(3), ACM, 2015.
  2. J. Lubacz, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - Principles and Overview of Network Steganography, IEEE Communication Magazine, April 2014 [.pdf]
  3. E. Zielińska, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - Trends in Steganography - Communications of the ACM, vol 57, No.2, March 2014, pp. 86-95 [.pdf]
  4. W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski, J. Lubacz - The Spy Who Skyped Me - Four New Ways to Smuggle Messages Across the Internet, IEEE Spectrum, November 2013, p. 40-43
  5. S. Wendzel, W. Mazurczyk, L. Caviglione, M. Meier - Hidden and Uncontrolled – On the Emergence of Network Steganography Threat - ISSE 2014, Brussels, Belgium, 14-15 October 2014 [.pdf]

WLAN Steganography

  1. I. Grabska, K. Szczypiorski - Steganography in Long Term Evolution Systems - In Proc. of 3rd International Workshop on Cyber Crime (IWCC 2014) co-located with the 35th IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (IEEE S&P 2013), San Jose, USA, May 18
  2. S. Grabski, K. Szczypiorski - Network Steganalysis: Detection of Steganography in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks - In Proc. of 5th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems (ICUMT 2013), September 10-12, 2013, Almaty, Kazakhstan (Best Paper Award)
  3. I. Grabska, K. Szczypiorski - Steganography in WiMAX networks - In Proc. of 5th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems (ICUMT 2013), September 10-12, 2013, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  4. S. Grabski, K. Szczypiorski - Steganography in OFDM Symbols of Fast IEEE 802.11n Networks - In Proc. of: The 2nd International Workshop on Cyber Crime (IWCC 2013) co-located with the 34th IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (IEEE S&P 2013), San Francisco, USA, May 24, 2013
  5. K. Szczypiorski, W. Mazurczyk - Steganography in IEEE 802.11 OFDM Symbols - International Journal of Security and Communication Networks, John Wiley & Sons, ISSN: 1939-0114, Vol. 3:1-12, 2011 [.pdf]
  6. K. Szczypiorski, W. Mazurczyk, Hiding Data in OFDM Symbols of IEEE 802.11 Networks, Second International Workshop on Network Steganography (IWNS 2010) co-located with The 2010 International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security (MINES 2010), Nanjing, China, November 4-6, 2010, also (previous version) in: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1006.0495, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 2 June 2010, published on 3 June 2010 [.pdf]
  7. K. Szczypiorski, A Performance Analysis of HICCUPS - a Steganographic System for WLAN , In: Telecommunication Systems: Modelling, Analysis, Design and Management, Volume 49: 3-4 - March/April 2012, ISSN: 1018-4864 (print version), ISSN: 1572-9451 (electronic version), Springer US, Journal no. 11235 also (previous version) in: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0906.4217, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 23 June 2009, published on 24 June 2009 [.pdf]
  8. K. Szczypiorski, Steganography in Wireless Local Area Networks, PhD thesis (in Polish), Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, September 2006
  9. Krzysztof Szczypiorski, Steganography in TCP/IP Networks. State of the Art and a Proposal of a New System - HICCUPS, Institute of Telecommunications' seminar, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, November 4th 2003 [.pdf]
  10. Krzysztof Szczypiorski, HICCUPS: Hidden Communication System for Corrupted Networks, In Proc. of: The Tenth International Multi-Conference on Advanced Computer Systems ACS'2003, pp. 31-40, October 22-24, 2003 - Międzyzdroje, Poland [.pdf]

VoIP Steganography (Steganophony)

  1. W. Mazurczyk - VoIP Steganography and Its Detection - A Survey - In: ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 46, Issue. 2, June 2014  [.pdf]
  2. W. Mazurczyk, M. Karas, K. Szczypiorski - SkyDe: a Skype-based Steganographic Method - International Journal of Computers, Communications & Control (IJCCC), ISSN: 1841- 9836, 8(3), June 2013, pp. 389-400
  3. A. Janicki, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - Steganalysis of Transcoding Steganography - accepted for publication in Annals of Telecommunications, DOI: 10.1007/s12243-013-0385-4
  4. A. Janicki, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - Influence of Speech Codecs Selection on Transcoding Steganography - In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1201.6218, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 30 January 2012 [.pdf]
  5. W. Mazurczyk, P. Szaga, K. Szczypiorski, Using Transcoding for Hidden Communication in IP Telephony - In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1111.1250, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 4 November 2011 [.pdf]
  6. W. Mazurczyk - Lost Audio Packets Steganography: A First Practical Evaluation,International Journal of Security and Communication Networks, John Wiley & Sons, ISSN: 1939-0114 alsoIn: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1107.4076, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 20 July 2011 [.pdf]
  7. W. Mazurczyk, J. Lubacz, K. Szczypiorski - On Steganography in Lost Audio Packets, International Journal of Security and Communication Networks, John Wiley & Sons, ISSN: 1939-0114 also In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1102.0023, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 31 January 2011 [.pdf]
  8. J. Lubacz, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - Vice over IP, In: IEEE Spectrum, ISSN: 0018-9235, February 2010, pp. 40-45 [link]
  9. W. Mazurczyk, K. Cabaj, K. Szczypiorski - What are suspicious VoIP delays?, In: Multimedia Tools and Applications, ISSN: 1380-7501 (print version), ISSN: 1573-7721 (electronic version), Springer US, Journal no. 11042 also (previous version) in: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1002.4303, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 23 February 2010, published on 24 February 2010 [.pdf]
  10. W. Mazurczyk, J. Lubacz, LACK - a VoIP Steganographic Method, In: Telecommunication Systems: Modelling, Analysis, Design and Management, Vol. 45, Numbers 2-3, 2010, ISSN: 1018-4864 (print version), ISSN: 1572-9451 (electronic version), Springer US, Journal no. 1123, also In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0811.4138, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 25 November 2008, published on 26 November 2008 [.pdf]
  11. W. Mazurczyk, J. Lubacz, and K. Szczypiorski, Hiding Data in VoIP, In Proc. of: The 26th Army Science Conference, December 1-4, 2008, Orlando, FL, USA [.pdf]
  12. W. Mazurczyk, Steganography in IP telephony, PhD thesis supervised by prof. Józef Lubacz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, November 2009
  13. W. Mazurczyk, J. Lubacz, Analysis of a Procedure for Inserting Steganographic Data into VoIP Calls, In Proc. of: PGTS'08, the Fifth Polish-German Teletraffic Symposium, Berlinn, Germany, October 6-7, 2008, also In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0806.1034, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 5 June 2008, published on 6 June 2008 [.pdf]
  14. W. Mazurczyk and K. Szczypiorski, Steganography of VoIP Streams, In: Robert Meersman and Zahir Tari (Eds.): OTM 2008, Part II - Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 5332, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Proc. of OnTheMove Federated Conferences and Workshops: The 3rd International Symposium on Information Security (IS'08), Monterrey, Mexico, November 9-14, 2008, pp. 1001-1018 [+ paper presentation] [.pdf] also (previous version) In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0805.2938, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 19 May 2008, published on 21 May 2008 [.pdf]
  15. W. Mazurczyk and K. Szczypiorski, Covert Channels in SIP for VoIP signalling, In: Hamid Jahankhani, Kenneth Revett, and Dominic Palmer-Brown (Eds.): ICGeS 2008 - Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS) 12, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Proc. of 4th International Conference on Global E-security 2008, London, United Kingdom, 23-25 June 2008, pp. 65-72 [+ paper presentation] also In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0805.3538, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 22 May 2008, published on 26 May 2008 [.pdf]
  16. W. Mazurczyk and Z. Kotulski, Covert Channel for Improving VoIP Security, In: Jerzy Pejas, Khalid Saeed (Eds.) - Advances in Information Processing and Protection, Science+Business Media Inc. Springer, August 2007
  17. W. Mazurczyk and Z. Kotulski, New VoIP Traffic Security Scheme with Digital Watermarking, In: Proceedings of The 25-th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security SafeComp 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4166, pp. 170 - 181, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg 2006 [.pdf]
  18. W. Mazurczyk and Z. Kotulski, New Security and Control Protocol for VoIP Based on Steganography and Digital Watermarking, In: Annales UMCS, Informatica, AI 5, pp. 417-426, ISSN 1732-1360, 2006 [.pdf]

Steganography in Smartphone Environments

  1. W. Mazurczyk, L. Caviglione - Steganography in Modern Smartphones and Mitigation Techniques (submitted)
  2. J.-F. Lalande, S. Wendzel - Hiding Privacy Leaks in Android Applications Using Low-Attention Raising Covert Channels, ECTCM Workshop @ ARES'13, pp. 701-710, Regensburg, 2013.

Steganographic Router (Steg Router, TrustMAS)

  1. K. Szczypiorski, W. Mazurczyk, K. Cabaj, P. Radziszewski, and et al., TrustMAS - Trusted Communication Platform for Multi-Agent Systems, In: Robert Meersman and Zahir Tari (Eds.): OTM 2008, Part II - Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 5332, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Proc. of OnTheMove Federated Conferences and Workshops: The 3rd International Symposium on Information Security (IS'08), Monterrey, Mexico,November 9-14, 2008, pp. 1019-1035 [+ paper presentation] [.pdf] also In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0808.4060, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 29 August 2008, published on 1 September 2008 [.pdf]
  2. K. Szczypiorski, W. Mazurczyk, and et al., Steganographic Routing in Multi Agent System Environment, Special Issue "Secured Information Systems" of Journal of Information Assurance and Security (JIAS), Dynamic Publishers Inc., Atlanta, GA 30362, USA, Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2007, pp. 235-243, ISSN 1554-1010 [.pdf] also In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0806.0576, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 3 June 2008, published on 4 June 2008 [.pdf]
  3. K. Szczypiorski, W. Mazurczyk, K. Cabaj, P. Radziszewski, and et al., Trusted Communication Platform for Multi-Agent Systems (TrustMAS), Final Report and four Interim Reports. Contract No. N62558-07-P-0042 funded by European Research Office of US Army (also supported by European Office of Aerospace Research and Development of US Air Force), 1 January 2007-31 December 2007
  4. P. Backs, S. Wendzel, J. Keller, Dynamic Routing in Covert Channel Overlays Based on Control Protocols, ISTP'12 Workshop @ ICITST'12, IEEE, pp. 32-39, London, 2012.
  5. S. Wendzel, J. Keller - Low-attention forwarding for mobile network covert channels, 12th Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security (CMS 2011), LNCS vol. 7025, pp. 122-133, Springer, Ghent, Belgium, 2011

Inter-Protocol Steganography

  1. B. Jankowski, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - PadSteg: Introducing Inter-Protocol Steganography - In: Telecommunication Systems: Modelling, Analysis, Design and Management, to be published in 2013, ISSN: 1018-4864 (print version), ISSN: 1572-9451 (electronic version), Springer US, Journal no. 11235 also (previous version) in: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1104.0422, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 3 April 2011 [.pdf]
  2. B. Jankowski, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski, Information Hiding Using Improper Frame Padding, Submitted to 14th International Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symposium (Networks 2010), 27-30.09.2010, Warsaw, Poland also (previous version) in: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1005.1925, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 11 May 2010, published on 12 May 2010 [.pdf]
  3. S. Wendzel, J. Keller - Preventing Protocol Switching Covert Channels, International Journal On Advances in Security, vol. 5 no. 3&4, pp. 81-93, IARIA, 2012
  4. S. Wendzel, S. Zander - Detecting Protocol Switching Covert Channels, 37th IEEE Conf. on Local Computer Networks (LCN), pp. 280-283, Clearwater, Florida, 2012.
  5. S. Wendzel, J. Keller - Design and Implementation of an Active Warden Addressing Protocol Switching Covert Channels, 7th International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection (ICIMP 2012), pp. 1-6, IARIA, Stuttgart, Germany, 2012.

Multi-Level Steganography and General Undetectability Enhancement Methods

  1. W. Mazurczyk, S. Wendzel, I. Azagra Villares, K. Szczypiorski - On Importance of Steganographic Cost For Network Steganography - accepted for publication in International Journal of Security and Communication Networks, John Wiley & Sons, ISSN: 1939-0114, 2014 [.pdf]
  2. W. Frączek, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski, How Hidden Can Be Even More Hidden? - In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1107.4065, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 20 July 2011 [.pdf]
  3. W. Frączek, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski, Multi-Level Steganography: Improving Hidden Communication in Networks - In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1101.4789, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 25 January 2011 [.pdf]

Internet Protocols and Mechanisms Steganography

  1. W. Frączek, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - Hiding Information in Stream Control Transmission Protocol - Computer Communication Journal (ComCom), Elsevier, ISSN: 0140-3664, January 2012, 35 (2), pg. 159-169
  2. W. Mazurczyk, M. Smolarczyk, K. Szczypiorski - On Information Hiding in Retransmissions - In: Telecommunication Systems: Modelling, Analysis, Design and Management, Volume 52, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 1113-1121, ISSN: 1018-4864 (print version), ISSN: 1572-9451 (electronic version), Springer US, Journal no. 11235
  3. P. Białczak, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski, StegSuggest: Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest, In Proc. of: Third International Workshop on Network Steganography (IWNS 2011) co-located with The 2011 International Conference on Telecommunication Systems, Modeling and Analysis (ICTSM2011), Prague, Czech Republic, 26-28.05.2011, also (previous version) in: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1107.4062, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 20 July 2011 [.pdf]
  4. W. Mazurczyk, M. Smolarczyk, K. Szczypiorski, Retransmission Steganography Applied, Second International Workshop on Network Steganography (IWNS 2010) co-located with The 2010 International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security (MINES 2010), Nanjing, China, November 4-6, 2010, also (previous version) in: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1007.0767, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 5 July 2010 [.pdf]
  5. W. Fraczek, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski, Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography, Second International Workshop on Network Steganography (IWNS 2010) co-located with The 2010 International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security (MINES 2010), Nanjing, China, November 4-6, 2010, , also (previous version) in: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1006.0247, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 1 June 2010, published on 2 June 2010 [.pdf]
  6. W. Mazurczyk, M. Smolarczyk, K. Szczypiorski, Retransmission Steganography and Its Detection, In: Soft Computing in 2010, ISSN: 1432-7643 (print version) ISSN: 1433-7479 (electronic version), Journal no. 500 Springer, also (previous version): Hiding Information in Retransmissions, In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0905.0363, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 4 May 2009, published on 5 May 2009 [.pdf]
  7. W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - Evaluation of Steganographic Methods for Oversized IP Packets In: Telecommunication Systems: Modelling, Analysis, Design and Management, Volume 49, Issue 2 (2012), Page 207-217, ISSN: 1018-4864 (print version), ISSN: 1572-9451 (electronic version), Springer US, Journal no. 11235
  8. W. Mazurczyk and K. Szczypiorski, Steganography in Handling Oversized IP Packets, In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0907.0313, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), submitted on 2 June 2009, published on 3 June 2009 [.pdf]

Cloud Computing Steganography

  1. B. Lipinski, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - Improving Hard Disk Contention-based Covert Channel in Cloud Computing Environment, In Proc. of 3rd International Workshop on Cyber Crime (IWCC 2014) co-located with the 35th IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (IEEE S&P 2013), San Jose, USA, May 18
  2. W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski - Is Cloud Computing Steganography-proof?, In Proc. of: The 2011 International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security (MINES 2011), Shanghai, China, 4-6 November, 2011 also In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1107.4077, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 20 July 2011 [.pdf]

Steganography in Cyber Physical Systems

  1. Steffen Wendzel, Viviane Zwanger, Michael Meier, Sebastian Szlósarczyk - Envisioning Smart Building Botnets - GI Sicherheit 2014, LNI 228, pp. 319-329, GI, Vienna, 2014.
  2. S. Wendzel, B. Kahler, T. Rist -Covert Channels and their Prevention in Building Automation Protocols - A Prototype Exemplified Using BACnet, 2nd Workshop on Security of Systems and Software Resiliency @ CPSCom'12,pp. 731-736, Besanon, France, IEEE, 2012.
  3. S. Wendzel - Covert and Side Channels in Buildings and the Prototype of a Building-aware Active Warden, SFCS'12 Workshop @ IEEE ICC'12, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 6753-6758, 2012.

Steganographic Control Protocols

  1. Matthias Naumann, Steffen Wendzel, Wojciech Mazurczyk, Jörg Keller, Micro protocol engineering for unstructured carriers: On the embedding of steganographic control protocols into audio transmissions, Security and Communication Networks (SCN), Wiley, 2015.
  2. Jaspreet Kaur, Steffen Wendzel, Michael Meier, Countermeasures for Covert Channel-internal Control Protocols, 4th Int. Workshop on Cyber Crime (IWCC), Toulouse, IEEE, 2015.
  3. S. Wendzel, J. Keller - Hidden and Under Control:  A Survey and Outlook on Covert Channel-internal Control Protocols, Annals of Telecommunications (ANTE), Springer Paris, 2014.
  4. S. Wendzel - Novel Approaches for Network Covert Storage Channels,PhD thesis, University of Hagen, 2013.
  5. S. Wendzel, J. Keller - Systematic Engineering of Control Protocols for Covert Channels,13th Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security (CMS 2012),LNCS 7394, pp. 131-144, Kent (Great Britain), 2012.
  6. S. Wendzel - The Problem of Traffic Normalization Within a Covert Channel's Network Environment Learning Phase, Sicherheit 2012, LNI vol. 195, pp. 149-161, GI, Darmstadt, Germany,2012

Patents

  1. K. Szczypiorski and P. Szafran, Sposób steganograficznego ukrywania i przesyłania danych dla sieci telekomunikacyjnych ze współdzielonym medium transmisyjnym oraz układ formowania ramek warstwy sterowania dostępem do medium (in Polish), Polish patent, number P-359660, 11 April 2003
  2. Wojciech Mazurczyk, Krzysztof Szczypiorski - Sposób steganograficznego ukrywania i przesyłania danych w sieci telekomunikacyjnej dla usług multimedialnych (in Polish), Polish patent application number number P-396615, 12 October 2011