VoIP Steganography & Steganalysis Bibliography

The following list of VoIP steganography and steganalysis papers was collected while working on the paper:

W. Mazurczyk - VoIP Steganography and Its Detection - A Survey - In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1203.4374, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), published on 20 March  2012 [.pdf]

and it covers VoIP steganography and steganalysis methods in period 2003-2012. If you think that this list is incomplete and you know relevant publications that are not yet listed on this page, or if you find errors, please contact us. We will try to maintain this list up to date.

 

VoIP Steganography

  1. Aoki N., A Packet Loss Concealment Technique for VoIP using Steganography, In Proc. of International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ISPACS 2003), Awaji Island, Japan, December 7-10, 2003
  2. Aoki N., VoIP packet loss concealment based on two-side pitch waveform replication technique using steganography, TENCON 2004, Thailand, Nov. 2004, Vol. 3, pp. 52 – 55
  3. Aoki N., Potential of Value-Added Speech Communications by Using Steganography, In Proc. of Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIHMSP 2007), Nov. 2007, pp. 251 – 254
  4. Aoki, N., A technique of lossless steganography for G.711 telephony speech. In: Int Conf Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIHMSP 2008), Harbin, China, Aug 15–17 2008, pp. 608–611
  5. Aoki, N., A Semi-Lossless Steganography Technique for G.711 Telephony Speech, In Proc. of Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, Darmstadt, Germany, October 2010
  6. Aoki, N., Lossless Steganography Techniques for IP Telephony Speech Taking Account of the Redundancy of Folded Binary Code, In Proc. of 5th International Joint Conference on INC, IMS and IDC, 2009
  7. Arackaparambil, C., Yan, G., Bratus, S., Caglayan, A., On Tuning the Knobs of Distribution-based Methods for Detecting VoIP Covert Channels, In Proc. of Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-45), Hawaii, January 2012
  8. Bai LY, Huang Y, Hou G, Xiao B, Covert channels based on jitter field of the RTCP Header. In: Int Conf Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, 2008
  9. Deng, Z., Shao, X., Yang, Z., Zheng, B., A novel covert speech communication system and its implementation, Journal of Electronics, Vol.25 No. 6, pp. 737-745, November 2008
  10. Dittmann J, Hesse D, Hillert R, Steganography and steganalysis in voice-over IP scenarios: operational aspects and first experiences with a new steganalysis tool set. In: Proc SPIE, Vol 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, 2005, San Jose, USA, pp. 607–618
  11. Druid, Real-time steganography with RTP. Technical Report, Sept. 2007 [.pdf]
  12. Forbes CR, A New covert channel over RTP. MSc thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology [.pdf]
  13. Hamdaqa M., Tahvildari L., ReLACK: A Reliable VoIP Steganography Approach, In Proc. of Fifth International Conference on Secure Software Integration and Reliability Improvement (SSIRI 2011), Korea, 2011
  14. Huang Y., Tang, S., Yuan, J., Steganography in Inactive Frames of VoIP Streams Encoded by Source Codec, IEEE Transactions on information forensics and security, Vol. 6, No. 2, June 2011
  15. Huang Y., Xiao B., Xiao H., Implementation of Covert Communication based on Steganography, International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP 2008), 2008
  16. Huang, Y., Yuan J., Chen M., Xiao B. (2011) Key Distribution over the Covert Communication Based on VoIP, Chinese Journal of Electronics, Vol.20, No.2, Apr. 2011
  17. Krätzer C, Dittmann J, Vogel T, Hillert R (2006) Design and evaluation of steganography for Voice-over-IP. In: Proc IEEE Int Symp Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Kos, Greece
  18. Li, S., Huang, Y., Detection of QIM Steganography in G.723.1 Bit Stream Based on Quantization Index Sequence Analysis, Journal of Zhejiang University Science C (Computers & Electronics) – to appear in 2012
  19. Lloyd, P., An Exploration of Covert Channels Within Voice Over IP, MSc thesis, Rochester Institute of Technolog, 2010
  20. Lubacz J., Mazurczyk W., Szczypiorski K, Voice over IP, In: IEEE Spectrum, ISSN: 0018-9235, Feb 2010, pp 40–45
  21. Lubacz J., Mazurczyk W., Szczypiorski K. Hiding Data in VoIP In Proc of: The 26th Army Science Conference (ASC 2008), Orlando, Florida, USA, December 1-4, 2008
  22. Ma L., Wu Z., Yang W., Approach to Hide Secret Speech Information in G.721 Scheme, ICIC 2007, LNCS 4681, 2007, pp. 1315–1324, 2007
  23. Mazurczyk W., Kotulski Z., New security and control protocol for VoIP based on steganography and digital watermarking, In: Proc 5th Int Conf Computer Science – Research and Applications (IBIZA 2006), Poland, Kazimierz Dolny, Feb 9–11
  24. Mazurczyk W., Lubacz J., LACK – a VoIP steganographic method. Telecommun Syst: Model Anal Des Manag 45(2/3), 2010, ISSN: 1018-4864 (print version), ISSN: 1572-9451 (electronic version)
  25. Mazurczyk W., Szaga P., Szczypiorski K., Using transcoding for hidden communication in IP telephony. In: Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/1111.1250, arXiv.org E-print Archive, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (USA), Nov 4. 2011 [.pdf]
  26. Mazurczyk W., Szczypiorski S., Covert channels in SIP for VoIP signalling. In: Jahankhani H, Revett K, Palmer-Brown D (eds) ICGeS 2008 – Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS) 12, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Proc 4th Int Conf Global E-security 2008, London, United Kingdom, June 23–25 2008, pp. 65–70
  27. Mazurczyk W., Szczypiorski S., Steganography of VoIP Streams. In: Meersman R, Tari Z (eds) OTM 2008, Part II – Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 5332, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Proc On The Move Federated Conferences and Workshops: 3rd Int Symp Information Security (IS'08), Monterrey, Mexico, Nov 9–14 2008, pp 1001–1018
  28. Mazurczyk W., Cabaj K., Szczypiorski, K., What are suspicious VoIP delays? - In: Multimedia Tools and Applications, 2010, ISSN: 1380-7501 (print version), ISSN: 1573-7721 (electronic version), Springer US, Journal no. 11042
  29. Mazurczyk W., Lost Audio Packets Steganography: A First Practical Evaluation, International Journal of Security and Communication Networks, 2012, John Wiley & Sons, ISSN: 1939-0114 (in press) DOI: 10.1002/sec.502
  30. Mazurczyk W., Z. Kotulski Z., New VoIP traffic security scheme with digital watermarking - In Proceedings of The 25-th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security SafeComp 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4166, pp. 170 - 181, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg 2006, ISBN 978-3-540-45762-6
  31. Miao R, Huang Y, An approach of covert communication based on the adaptive steganography scheme on Voice over IP. IEEE Int Conf Communications (ICC 2011), 2011
  32. Nishimura A., Steganographic bandwidth extension for the AMR codec of low-bit-rate modes. In: Proc Interspeech 2009, Brighton, UK, Sept 6–10 2009, pp 2611–2614
  33. Shah G., Molina A., Blaze M., Keyboards and Covert Channels. In: Proceedings of 15th USENIX Security Symposium, pp. 59–75, 2006
  34. Shah G., Blaze M., Covert channels through external interference, Proceedings of the 3rd USENIX conference on Offensive technologies, p.3-3, August 10, 2009, Montreal, Canada
  35. Takahashi T., Lee W., An assessment of VoIP covert channel threats. In: Proc 3rd Int Conf Security and Privacy in Communication Networks (SecureComm 2007), Nice, France, 2007
  36. Tian H., Zhou K., Jiang H., Liu J., Huang Y., Feng D., An adaptive steganography scheme for voice over IP. IEEE Int Symp Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2009), Taipei, Taiwan, May 24–27, 2009
  37. Tian H., Zhou K., Jiang H., Liu J., Huang Y., Feng D., An M-sequence based steganography model for voice over IP. IEEE Int Conf Communications (ICC 2009), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18 2009, pp 1–5
  38. Tian H., Jiang H., Zhou K., Feng, D., Adaptive partial-matching steganography for voice over IP using triple M sequences, Computer Communications Journal, 34, pp. 2236–2247, 2011
  39. Tian H., Jiang H., Zhou K., Feng, D., Transparency-orientated Encoding Strategies for Voice-over-IP Steganography, The Computer Journal, 2011, doi: 10.1093/comjnl/bxr111 (to be published)
  40. Tian H., Zhou K., Feng, D., Dynamic matrix encoding strategy for voice-over-IP steganography, J. Cent. South Univ. Technol., 2010, 17: 1285−1292
  41. Tian H., Zhou K., Huang Y., Feng, D., Liu, J., A Covert Communication Model Based on Least Significant Bits Steganography in Voice over IP, In Proc. of 9th International Conference for Young Computer Scientists, China, 2008
  42. Tian, H., Guo, R., Lu, J., Chen, Y., Implementing Covert Communication over Voice Conversations with Windows Live Messenger, Advances in information Sciences and Service Sciences (AISS), Vol. 4, No. 4, March 2012
  43. Wang C., Wu W., Information hiding in real-time VoIP streams. In: 9th IEEE Int Symp Multimedia (ISM 2007), Taichung, Taiwan, Dec 10–12 2007, pp 255–262
  44. Wieser C., Röning J., An Evaluation of voip covert channels in an SBC setting, In Proc. of Security in Futures – Security in Change Conference, 3-4 June 2010, Turku, Finland
  45. Wu Z., Yang W., G.711-Based Adaptive Speech Information Hiding Approach, ICIC 2006, LNCS 4113, pp. 1139 – 1144, 2006
  46. Xiao, B., Huang, Y., Tang, S., An Approach to Information Hiding in Low Bit-rate Speech Stream, In Proc. of Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2008), USA, 2008, pp. 1-5
  47. Xu T., Yang Z., Simple and effective speech steganography in G.723.1 low-rate codes. In: Proc Int Conf Wireless Communications & Signal Processing WCSP 2009, Nanjing, China, Nov 13–15 2009, pp 1–4
  48. Xu, E., Liu, B., Xu, L., Wei, Z., Zhao, B., Su, J., Adaptive VoIP Steganography for Information Hiding within Network Audio Streams, In Proc. of 2011 International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems, Tirana, Albania, September 2011, pp. 612 - 617


VoIP Steganalysis

  1. Arackaparambil, C., Yan, G., Bratus, S., Caglayan, A., On Tuning the Knobs of Distribution-based Methods for Detecting VoIP Covert Channels, In Proc. of Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-45), Hawaii, January 2012
  2. Dittmann J., Hesse D., Hillert R., Steganography and steganalysis in voice-over IP scenarios: operational aspects and first experiences with a new steganalysis tool set. In: Proc SPIE, Vol 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, 2005, San Jose, USA, pp. 607–618
  3. Garateguy, G., Arce, G., Pelaez, J., Covert Channel detection in VoIP streams, In Proc. of 45th Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS), March 2011, pp. 1-6
  4. Huang, Y., Tang, S., Bao, C., Yip, Yau Jim, Steganalysis of compressed speech to detect covert voice over Internet protocol channels. IET Information Security, 5 (1). pp. 26-32, 2011
  5. Huang, Y., Tang, S., Zhang, Y., Detection of covert voice-over Internet protocol communications using sliding window-based steganalysis, IET Communications, Vol. 5, Iss. 7, pp. 929–936, 2011
  6. Kräetzer, C., Dittmann, J., Cover Signal Specific Steganalysis: the Impact of Training on the Example of two Selected Audio Steganalysis Approaches, In Proc. of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging, SPIE Vol. 6819, 2008
  7. Kräetzer, C., Dittmann, J., Mel-Cepstrum Based Steganalysis for VoIP-Steganography, In Proc. of the 19th Annual Symposium of the Electronic Imaging Science and Technology, SPIE and IS&T, San Jose, California, USA, February 2007
  8. Kräetzer, C., Dittmann, J., Pros and Cons of Mel-cepstrum based Audio Steganalysis using SVM Classification, In Lecture Notes on Computer Science, 2008, vol. LNCS 4567, pp. 359–377
  9. Krätzer C, Dittmann J, Vogel T, Hillert R (2006) Design and evaluation of steganography for Voice-over-IP. In: Proc IEEE Int Symp Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Kos, Greece
  10. Takahashi T., Lee W., An assessment of VoIP covert channel threats. In: Proc 3rd Int Conf Security and Privacy in Communication Networks (SecureComm 2007), Nice, France, 2007
  11. Xu T., Yang Z., Simple and effective speech steganography in G.723.1 low-rate codes. In: Proc Int Conf Wireless Communications & Signal Processing WCSP 2009, Nanjing, China, Nov 13–15 2009, pp 1–4